Mysore is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka and the administrative seat of Mysore District, one of the largest districts in Karnataka. It was the capital of the former Kingdom of Mysore, with whose history its own is closely linked. References from the times of Mahabharata and Asoka refer to Mahisha Nadu or Mahisha Mandala. References can also be found in Tamil literature about Ezimahi Nadu. The earliest documented evidence of the town is in the form of stone carvings (saasanas) found in villages around Mysore, inscribed around 1021 AD. From 1499 the name Mahisūru has been recorded in inscriptions. By way of literary flourish, it is also spelt as Mahisurapura. The name of Mahishur or its anglicized form “Mysore” is described as derived from Mahishasura, the buffalo-headed monster that lived in this area and was killed by the goddess Chamundi. A temple was built in honour of the deity on what came to be known Chamundi Hill. Until 1610, when Srirangapatnam was acquired, Mysore was the centre of administration. It became the capital of the Kingdom of Mysore after the death of Tipu Sultan in 1799.
The Gangas, Cholas, Hoysalas and Vijayanagara kings ruled over Mysore. Before the rise of the Gangas in the 10th century there is little historical evidence relating to Mysore. However the area might have been under the Pallavas for a few decades. The Gangas established their supremacy in the second century AD and ruled over a large part of Mysore until about the 10th century. Sometime between the third and fifth centuries they established their capital at Talakad, on the banks of the River Cauvery. The Punnata area, in modern Heggadadevanakote region, was under the Punnata rulers between the fourth and sixth centuries, until its merger with the Ganga territory. The Cholas succeeded in capturing Talakad and overthrowing the Gangas. The whole region south of the River Cauvery from Kodagu and east of a line from near Shrirangapattana to Nandidurga was overrun by the Cholas, and the area was under their rule for over 100 years.
The Hoysalas gained greater power after 1111 under Vishnuvardhana and drove the Cholas out of Mysore. The Hoysalas are known for the beautiful temples they built during their reign. It is said that they built or expanded the existing temples in Mysore and on the Chamundi Hills. There is an inscription in Mysore by the Hoysalas that dates back to the 11th or 12th centuries. After the decline of the Hoysalas, Vijayanagar sovereigns became paramount throughout the south. Under the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagar rulers, chieftains like the Changalvas and the Ummattur chiefs ruled over different parts of present Mysore district. During the latter part of Vijayanagar rule, the number of such feudatories increased. Among these, the Wodeyars of Mysore came to have complete control over the region.
Raja Wodeyars made Shrirangapattana his capital in 1610. The Mysore Kingdom comprised the Mysore, Mandya and parts of Hassan district in 1617. It further expanded under Kapthirava Narasaraja, Chikkadevaraja, Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan.
In 1800, the capital shifted to Mysore again after the fall of Tipu when Krishnaraja Wodeyar III became the ruler. During the reign of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III Mysore expanded and developed into a planned city. It became famous for its wide roads, magnificent buildings and elegant parks, which left an indelible impression on the cultural legacy of the city. During his reign from 1811 to 1831, the entire kingdom was divided into six foujdaris, and the present Mysore district formed part of the Ashtagram foujdari. In 1831, the British took over the administration of the Mysore territory and a Commissioner was appointed to govern the territory of the Raja. The Commissioners’ rule of Mysore continued for fifty years (1831 to 1881), after which the Mysore territory was handed back to the Mysore Wodeyars. Under the suzerainty of the British Empire, the Wodeyars of Mysore ruled over the Mysore kingdom until India’s independence in 1947, when Mysore acceded to the Indian Union.
THE BIRTHDAY OF HIS HIGHNESS THE MAHARAJA
The date of the Birthday, calculated according to the English calendar, it may fal on any day within a lunar month of that date.
A salute, the number of guns announcing His Highness’s age, is fired at 7 a.m. Durbars are held for four or five days. A procession, in which the Maharaja rides a State charger through the city to Government House, almost rivals the Dasara procession in length and splendour. At Government house His Highness receives the congratulations of his invited guests, and reviews the troops on the adjacent parade ground, which is illuminated by thousands of electric lights.
During the Birthday week races and polo matches take place, and similar arrangements for guests, and entertainments for the people, make the Birthday week little less of a national festival than the Dasara.
BIRTHDAY PROCESSION OF PRINCE JAYA CHAMARAJENDRA WADIYAR
The son of H.H. the Yuvaraja. It usually falls in July.
The young Prince’s name of Jaya (Victory) was given in commemoration of the very auspicious hour of his birth. He was ushered into the world as the guns were actually announcing the victory of the Allies in the Great War.
The last occasion was unforgettably beautiful. The little prince, he was only five, rode the excited Dancing Pony as easily and unconcernedly as if he were in an armchair, and continually acknowledged the acclamations of the crowd. He was accompanied by his younger sister, a lovely child, also on horseback. Both were exquisitely dressed and covered with jewels. The procession left the palace about 6 p.m. and proceeded round the inside of the fort, stopping at the three principal temples. At these the little Prince and Princess dismounted, offered puja and received mangalarati.
The scene, recalling the Arabian Nights and mediaeval court pageantry, was touchingly and extremely beautiful.
- Deputy Commissioner Office
- Mysuru City Corporation
- Oriental Research Institute (Gordon Park)
- Crawford Hall and Gorden Park
- Gun House
- Sri Brahmatantra Swatantra Parakala Swamy Mutt
- Cheluvamba Mansion (CFTRI)
- Karanji Mansion
- Law Courts Building
- Doddakere Maidana – Dasara Exhibition
- Hoysala and Public Office
- Clock Tower
- The Jockeys Quarters and ATI Buildings
- Jayachamaraja Wodeyar Golf Club
- Mysore Race Club
- Wellington Lodge
- Government House
- Water tanks, boundary stones and Watch Towers
- Freemason’s Hall
- Rayankere Dairy Farm
- Elephant Keddahs
- Vasantha Mahal
- Park House, Mirza Road
- Sri Jayacharajendra Scout & Guide Headquarters, Gordon Park
- FTS – Forbes Transmission Station
- Railway Museum
- Regional Museum of Natural History
- K R Circle – Krishnaraja Circle
- Hardinge Circle
- Ayurvedic Circle
- Ramaswamy Circle
- Five Lights Circle
- Chamarajendra Circle – (Opposite Palace North Gate)
- Basaveswara Circle
- Dr Ambedkar Circle
- Mahaveera Circle
- Mahatma Gandhi Circle
- Fountain Circle